Irisina, l’ormone salva ossa

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Qualche anno fa, precisamente nel 2012, dei ricercatori dell’Harvard Medical School, hanno scoperto un ormone che viene prodotto dal tessuto osseo e dai muscoli quando si trovano in uno stato di sollecitazione (cioè in esercizio fisico). A questa sostanza è stato dato il nome di Irisina anche se in molti la chiamano “l’ormone dello sport”.

Da allora è stata studiata in diversi centri di ricerca (università di Pechino, dall’università politecnica delle Marche in collaborazione con l’università di Bari, ecc.) dimostrando che l’irisina può contrastare l’osteoporosi (quindi riduce il rischio di fratture) e l’atrofia muscolare (di conseguente favorisce l’irrobustimento dei muscoli). Entrambi questi effetti potrebbero essere molto importanti considerando il crescente invecchiamento delle persone.

Si hanno questi effetti grazie al fatto che l’irisina favorisce la fissazione del calcio nel tessuto osseo e attiva gli osteoblasti stimolando la costruzione del tessuto osseo. Oltre a ciò pare che migliori la sensibilità delle cellule all’insulina (fenomeno positivo per ridurre i rischi da diabete) e che contribuisca all’aumento della quantità  del tessuto adiposo bruno cioè del “grasso bruno” corporeo (che grazie alla termogenina “brucia” i grassi per produrre calore cioè per attuare la termogenesi) e non del “grasso bianco” (che se in eccesso può essere pericoloso per la salute.

Quasi tutte queste positive deduzioni scientifiche sono state ottenute attraverso ricerche effettuate sugli animali (per lo più effettuando test sui topi). Attualmente si sta cercando di passare alla sperimentazione sull’uomo per confermare i risultati ottenuti sugli animali. Addirittura pare ci siano degli studi in corso (sempre sugli animali), più precisamente dei test nello Spazio (condotti dall’ESA: Agenzia Spaziale Europea), per valutare quanto l’irisina può venire in contro agli astronauti durante le lunghe permanenze in orbita. Insomma è tutto in divenire…

Ad ogni modo, come dimostrato da un recente studio effettuato dall’università di Pechino su oltre cento donne e pubblicato sul “Joint Bone Spine Journal”, delle concentrazioni basse di irisina aumentano il rischio di fratture ossee.

Quindi, senza aspettare i risultati di ulteriori ricerche scientifiche, è bene ridurre la sedentarietà e optare per uno stile di vita più dinamico attraverso il costante movimento fisico. Insomma dovremo entrare nell’ottica che fare del moderato e costante esercizio fisico rappresenta il metodo più sano, economico e piacevole per mantenersi in forma e per prevenire molte patologie.

Ovviamente tale attività fisica, specialmente in alcuni casi (anziani, defedati, ecc.), va fatta sotto l’indicazione e controllo di personale qualificato.

A questo punto, vista anche la bella stagione, non mi resta che augurare buon sport a tutti…

© Produzione riservata

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Dr. Luciano O. Atzori

Biologo – Esperto in Sicurezza degli Alimenti e in Tutela della Salute
Divulgatore Scientifico

Co-founder dello ISQAlimenti.it

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